The development of the computer right from its inceptions to today’s most sophisticated version can be classified into different stages. Catch stage with a period of about 10 years is known as a generation. Hence the first generation is during 1950 -1960 and 1960-1970 is the second generation 1970-1980 the third and 1981 and after is the fourth generation computers. Though the fifth generation computers were to start in January 1990’s the fifth generation has not been announced due to the delay in research work caused by the technical limitation.
The Following is a Brief of each Generation:
First Generation Computers:
These computers were using thousands of Vacuum tubes approximate in each computer due to which the size of the machine used to be very large and the cost used to be very high. Since the life of a vacuum tube is very small these machines could have been used only for a short time and once a tube is burnt out the machine would have stopped working until a new tube is replaced.
Since no compilers were invented by then programming in these machines were performed by physical connecting and disconnecting wires which used to take huge amount of time of skilled professional. Inspire of all these hurdles computer was a wonderful invention and people by and large have accepted and adopted this machine. Thus made today computer possible.
Second Generation Computers:
The remarkable invention of the transistor and the high level language has made these 2nd generation computers smaller farter and with greater computing capacity. Unlike the earlier computers the 2nd generation computers were designed with non scientific processing requirement in mind. The invention of transistor in 1948 led to the development of 2nd generation computers. Although faster smaller and more powerful they were still expensive machines which only large commercial organization could afford.
Third Generation Computers:
In 1964 the 3rd generation computers were introduced. These had integrated transistor circuits having higher speed larger storages capacities and lower prices. These computers were called mini computers. Instead of having one transistor of its own several transistor could be integrated with the other components and sealed up in a small package. The package was called an integrated circuit I.C. or more popularly a chip was invented by jack Kirby at
instruments in 1958. the manufacturing of mini computer of 3rd generation began after development of large scale integration and very large scale integration and microprocessor chips. Texas
Fourth Generation Computers:
ICs which have the entire computer circuitry on a single silicon chip are called MICRO-PROCESSORS. The computer using chips are called micro computers or in story micros. Due to development of microprocessor chip in 1971 by Intel Corporation of U.S.A another breed of computers known as micro computers came into existence in 1974 and became popular as 4th generation of computers. The personal computer developed by the multinational giant IBM in 1984 uses 16 bit microprocessor and belongs to 4th generation of computers.